chromite silica carbon flux

Chromite The only mineral ore of chromium metal

What is Chromite Chromite is an oxide mineral composed of chromium iron and oxygen FeCr 2 O 4 It is dark gray to black in color with a metallic to submetallic luster and a high specific gravity It occurs in basic and ultrabasic igneous rocks and in the metamorphic and sedimentary rocks that are produced when chromite-bearing rocks are altered by heat or weathering...

processing chromite ore flux material

processing chromite ore flux material Chromium mining and processing in nature chromium is found as chromite ore composed of elemental iron oxygen and chromium feocr o heavily in about a m vicinity around the countries with commercially significant chromite mines include russia south africa zimbabwe turkey the philippines and india chromite ore is initially...

PROCESS FOR EFFECTIVE UTILIZATION OF LOW GRADE

The dried green pellets prepared with stoichiometric carbon 184g and silica 30g and 47g CaO lime flux are subjected to various temperatures in the range of 1000 0C to 1400 0C for different duration The Fe-metallization is estimated as the ratio of metallic Fe to total Fe content in the reduced pellets obtained after reduction...

Carbothermic Reduction of Synthetic Chromite with/without

Within the scope of chromite reduction a literature sur-vey shows that the reduction of chromite both synthetic and natural in the presence of fluxes or metals has been of great interest Katayama et al12 investigated the effect of addition of chlorides carbonates fluorides and borates on the reduction of synthetic chromite and chromite ore...

PDF COAL BASED DIRECT REDUCTION OF PREOXIDIZED CHROMITE

With increase in the carbon from coal content beyond certain limit 279g the residual excess carbon increases in the reduced product and results in decreased Cr and Fe metallization Therefore the suitable coal mix established from reduction experiments is 279 coal for reduction of 100 g preoxidized chromite ore at given flux conditions...

ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE HEATING ELEMENTS AN

Aluminum Tungsten Molybdenum and Tantalum CERAMIC MATERIALS Silicon Carbide and at one time Zirconium Oxide CERAMIC METALS Molybdenum Disilicide Lanthanum Chromite PRECIOUS METALS Platinum and Platinum Rhodium Alloys and GRAPHITE/CARBON based materials These materials may be divided into two...

Flux metallurgy Britannica

Flux in metallurgy any substance introduced in the smelting of ores to promote fluidity and to remove objectionable impurities in the form of slag Limestone is commonly used for this purpose in smelting iron or Other materials used as fluxes are silica dolomite lime borax and fluorite...

Method for direct use of chromite ore in the production of

Flux is added to neutralize silicon dioxide SiO 2 generated from silicon contained in the scrap and pig iron After a period of about 30 minutes partially reduced chromite pellets and a carbonaceous material are charged into the converter...

SOME ASPECTS OF THE PRODUCTION OF

The chromite ore Cr/Fe ratio is of importance as it directly affects the alloy Cr grade whilst the gangue elements affect the melting energy and rate as well as the slag chemistry The chromite spinel ore morphology can be described stoichiometrically as Fe Mg Cr Al Fe 2O4 and chromite ores often contain gangue elements of SiO2 and MgO...

Effect of silica on the carbothermic reduction of chromite

The effect of SiO 2 addition on the solid state reduction of a Greek chromite concentrate at 1300 and 1400 176 C has been studied Addition of SiO 2 in the chromite concentrate-graphite mixture...

US5654976A

The process feeds a mixture of scrap metal chromite flux materials carbonaceous material and wood chips to a submerged arc furnace to make a base iron suitable for iron and steel purpos The mixture contains about 1-60 chromite about 1 to 20 flux materials about 5 to 35 carbonaceous material about 0-10 wood chips all based on the weight of scrap in the mixture...

CMIP5 Data Search CMIP5 ESGF

Carbon Mass Flux due to NPP Allocation to Leaf 236 Carbon Mass Flux due to NPP Allocation to Roots 236 Carbon Mass Flux due to NPP Allocation to Wood 236 Downward Flux of Particulate Silica 340 Downward Heat Flux at Sea Water Surface 2235 Downward Heat Flux into Snow Where Land over Land 1536...

Production Smelting Technologies for Ferrochromium

As a result the high-carbon ferrochromium has become the most widely produced and consumed grade of chromium-containing ferroalloys The produc-tion of high carbon ferrrochromium is based on reduction smelting of chromite ore with coke in the presence of silica in a submerged arc furnace...

Reduction of carbon

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US20090071291A1

This invention relates to a novel fire assay flux composition including inter alia a dispersant in the form of a source of phosphate a primary reductant in the form of iron powder comprising particles having a particle size of 60 mesh and finer at least one basic flux and at least one acidic flux The fire assay flux composition is useful for the fire assay analysis of Platinum Group...

PDF REDUCTION BEHAVIORS OF CHROMITE AND NIO IN

Ding et al investigated the reduction of chromite by graphite in the presence of a CaO-SiO2 slag or under CO atmosphere at different temperatures 6 7 In the present study the reduction of Turkish chromite concentrate and nickel oxide in a carbon saturated iron alloy was studied with flux additions in a carbon crucible at 1600 176 C...

DIRECT CHROMIUM ALLOYING BY CHROMITE ORE WITH

Direct chromium alloying by chromite ore in EAF operation is a promising process in stainless steel production which has the advantage of resource-saving energy-saving and environment-friendly In the present investigation iron carbon and chromite ore mixture Fe C FeCr 2 O 4 were chosen as the precursor for direct chromium alloying...

Reduction mechanism of chromite spinel with carbon

Ferrochromium produced by smelting chromite ores is an important alloying component in the steel industry Ore coke and fluxes are mixed and reacted in an arc furnace for a smelting process of ferrochromium In addition to this process pre-reduction of chromite ore with carbon is an important industrial process In all these processes the mechanism and kinetics of reduction of chromite with...

v118n12a9 Influences of alkali fluxes on direct reduction

ore graphite flux being 100 22 12 and the ore composed of 84 wt chromite and 16 wt clinochlore KJC=AGC TG-DSC tests in the absence of a flux indicated that the first thermal event took place at approximately 700 176 C resulting in the appearance of an endotherm as well as about 3 wt mass loss Figure 1 Off-gas analysis by mass spectrometry...

Understanding the long

carbon dioxide water calcium silicate = calcium carbonate carbon dioxide silica water The basis of the equation written above has been understood since the middle of the 19th Century A more complex version could be written involving magnesium too that element can be coprecipitated with calcium to form dolomite calcium magnesium...

Types of Refractory Materials and Their Applications

Oct 26 2015 0183 32 Chromite refractories Chrome-magnesite material usually contain 15-35 Cr2O3 and 42-50 MgO whereas magnesite-chromite refractories contain at least 60 MgO and 8-18 Cr2O3...

Silica Flux Crush In South Africa

how to crush silica ore chromite silica carbon flux latest news on silica south africa eand porting silica ore crushing equipment germany silica quartz The Reduction Mechanism of Chromite in the Presence of a Silica Flux The reduction behavior of a natural chromite from the Bushveld Complex of South Africa was...

The reduction mechanism of chromite in the presence of a

The reduction behavior of a natural chromite from the Bushveld Complex of South Africa was studied at 1300 176 C to 1500 176 C Reduction was by graphite in the presence of silica Thermo-gravimetric analysis X-ray diffraction XRD analysis energy-dispersive X-ray analysis EDAX and metallographic analysis were the experimental techniques used...

The reduction of chromite in the presence of silica flux

Mar 01 2006 0183 32 As mentioned earlier above the effect of silica addition on reduction of chromite at 1300 176 C was minimal at all the particle sizes and at all levels of silica additionAt higher temperatures of 1400 176 C and 1500 176 C the influence of silica was strong at an optimum level of 75 additionA typical plot is illustrated in Fig 1The results for 1400 176 C and 1500 176 C were very similar due to...

Chromite Sand Buyers Suppliers all Quality Chromite Sand

Chromite Sand Buyers Chromite Sand Buyers Suppliers Directory - Find variety Chromite Sand Buyers Suppliers Manufacturers Companies from around the World at chromite sand chromite sand price price of chromite sand Chrome Ore...

Minerals Free Full

Ferrochromium alloy mainly in the form of high carbon ferrochrome is produced by the carbothermic smelting reduction of chromite in a submerged arc furnace SAF at an operating temperature higher than 1600 176 C Chromite mineral is spinel A 2 1 B 3 2 O 4 with its tetrahedral sites occupied by the divalent ions of Fe 2 and Mg 2 and its octahedral sites by the trivalent ions of Cr 3...

An Improved DC

were assumed to be LG6 chromite fines duff anthracite and coal limestone silica electrodes and air Slag metal gas dust and solids form the basis of the furnace product streams The solid stream has been incorporated in order to provide for excess carbon fed to the unit and is assumed to leave the furnace with the slag...

The reduction of chromite in the presence of silica flux

Weber et al 14 15 16 investigated the effect of silica addition on the reduction of chromite ore They found that silica affected the reduction at and above 1 673 176 C and the overall process...

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